he has a good point 1-What are dangerous goods?

Dangerous goods are articles or substances that are capable of posing a significant risk to Health, Safety, Property or the Environment. There are over 700 individual dangerous goods listings within the dangerous goods regulations.

site de rencontre 69 gratuit 2-What is: A PACKING GROUP?

As well as a the nine different ‘Class’ designators indicating the  conocer jovenes de otros paises type of hazard a dangerous goods presents, a ‘Packing Group’ is assigned to dangerous goods according to the  http://blossomjar.com/pacinity/1150 degree of hazard they present. These are as follows:  Packing Group I    =  Great danger 
 Packing Group II   =  Medium danger 
 Packing Group III  =  Minor danger      

Classes 3 and 4, Divisions 5.1 and 6.1 and Class 8 and some Class 9 substances have Packaging Groups assigned to them. Packing Groups are not assigned to Class 1 ‘explosives’; Class 2 ‘gases’ and ‘gas mixtures’; Class 6.2 ‘infectious substances’ or Class 7 ‘radioactives.’ Packaging Group designators are always written in Roman numerals. 

When performance testing a dangerous goods package in order to determine that the design of the package meets the minimum performance criteria required by the UN, and to attain the mandatory UN approval, the Packaging Group of the product to be transported in the package is one of the factors that determines the test protocol. Testing conducted on a package for a P.G.  http://www.youngasianescorts.co.uk/?baletos=%D8%AE%D9%8A%D8%A7%D8%B1-%D8%AB%D9%86%D8%A7%D8%A6%D9%8A-demo.com&669=9d I product is considerably more stringent than the testing requirements for a P.G.  carbon age dating III 

citas via internet para ife 3-What is: A ‘LIMITED QUANTITY PACKAGE’?

‘Limited Quantity’ packages are a packaging type designated by the  http://www.ivst-vz.de/?debin=trader-seiten-60sekunden-handel IATA Dangerous Goods Regulations as being acceptable for some products of some hazardous goods ‘Classes’ and some ‘Packing Groups’ that contain very small quantities of dangerous goods.  cherche homme bonne situation IATA Packing Instructions for these products are always preceded by ‘Y###’ . 

When choosing packaging to air freight your products in Limited Quantity packages, ensure that the airline operator and the country of destination accept Limited Quantity packages Some airlines and some countries do not. Some airlines and some countries may accept them for some products and not for others. Some countries may not allow such packaging’ to “pass through”  even if that country is a transit stopover and not  the final destination. Some countries may accept limited quantity packages but they will not allow on-forwarding by air on domestic airlines. They will  be on-forwarded only by road. 

The minimum legal requirements for Limited Quantity packages is that they must meet “the general packaging requirements of Division 5.1. In particular: 

Inner packagings of Limited Quantity packages must have been separately tested in accordance with  http://jsmaids.com/firpeqw/7205 Clause 5.0.2.9 of the  IATA Dangerous Goods Regulations; that is, an internal pressure test to not less than 95 kPa but to not less that the pressure differential at 500C of the product to be transported, or whichever is the greater.

Packages must be packed in compliance with the specific ‘Y’ packing instruction.

Packages must be compliant with Subsection 6.1 and 6.2 of the IATA Dangerous Goods Regulations

Packaging’ must comply with the test requirements of 6.6 of the IATA Dangerous Goods Regulations

The design type package must be prepared exactly as to be used in transport and must survive without any loss of contents, leakage or breakage:

A Drop Test of 1.2 metres onto the most vulnerable  point of the package

A Stacking Test equivalent to a 3 M high stack of similar packaging’ for 24 hours

The main difference between a ‘UN approved’ combination package and a ‘Limited Quantity’ packaging is that the limited quantity package test requirement is less stringent.

The Limited Quantity package in its combination format, with inner packaging(s), and outer and any other components, does not have to be approved by the Competent Authority and therefore does not need to carry UN package specification and approval markings on the outer package.

4. Which regulations govern transport of dangerous goods?

The transport of Dangerous Goods is subject to modal regulations that follow the Recommendations of the U.N. Committee of Experts on the Transport of Dangerous Goods. The relevant authorities for the various modes of transport available are:

1. The International Civil Aviation Organization for the transport of dangerous goods by air,
2. International Maritime Organization for dangerous goods by sea, and
3. ADR/RID regulatory guides for transporting dangerous goods by road and rail through Europe.

Each of these regulatory guides spell out the legal position and associated responsibilities of a shipper.

Despite ICAO producing the regulatory statements for transporting dangerous goods by air, the more commonly used guides are produced by IATA (The International Air Transport Association). The current guide is the 57th Edition, produced for 2015-16

 5. What proof is there of the packaging meeting transport regulations?

For each United Nations approved package there is a test certificate, which is issued by a state and details:

– The name of the body that the certification is issued to (Quite often this is the manufacturer)
– The packaging type – for example, 4GV, 1A1…
– Material information; including the type of material used – for example, corrugated fiberboard or steel.
– Any closure methods – for example 50mm tape
– If inner packaging were used, then the quantity contained within them
– The packaging tests that were applied; drop test, stack test, etc
– The packing group(s) that the packaging is approved for – I, II or III
– The UN approval mark
– Conditions of issue (usually found on the back of the certificate

In order to remain compliant, the packaging must be used in exactly the same way as it was tested and approved.

6. Must all packaging’s used to transport dangerous goods bear a UN mark?

Simply put, no. Not all packagings used for transporting dangerous goods must bear a UN approval mark. There are some packaging’s that do not require a UN mark, but do still need to meet a number of requirements, including their capability of passing various packaging tests and the quality of material used. They may also likely require combination packaging – but this does not apply to all packagings.

You can identify whether or not a substance or material requires UN approved packaging by looking at the relevant packaging instruction for the associated UN number.

7. What do the registered markings with a United Nations symbol mean?

A UN mark identifies that a packaging has been approved to United Nations standards for the transport of dangerous goods by road, sea and/or air. A UN mark will usually be made up of a number of numbers and letters, directly following a ‘UN’ logo.

The ultimate goal we have when packing dangerous goods is to pack it in a manner to prevent the escape of the material contained within it. This is accomplished by utilizing UN approved packaging. International agreements for the carriage of dangerous goods require packaging to be of a design-type, certified by a national competent authority. This involves testing the packaging against the appropriate UN specifications to ensure its suitability for the carriage of certain dangerous goods. 

Such packaging is often referred to as “type-approved”, “UN Approved” or “UN certified” “POP” (performance oriented) and is marked in a particular way, prefixed by the UN Packaging symbol and followed by alpha numeric codes. It is not only important to select the correct UN approved packaging, but it is also important to use it as it was tested and carefully follow the closure information provided by the manufacturer.

Part of choosing the right fiberboard box or other type of outer packaging revolves around the following information:

  • The UN number or proper shipping name of the dangerous goods being shipped
  • The amount of dangerous goods being shipped
  • The physical dimensions and weight of the inner packaging that the substance will be shipped in

When a shipper has determined the information from above, we can then examine a UN specification marking to see if the fiberboard package or other type of outer packaging is suitable for shipping the desired dangerous goods.

UN Packaging symbol: the symbol signifies that a package has been tested and has passed UN packaging performance tests. The symbol should not be applied to a package for any other purpose, especially if that package has not been tested.

UN Codes for Type of Packaging and Material of Construction: There are several different types of packagings along with several different materials in which they are constructed from. The following gives a brief overview of each:

Types of Packaging

  • 1 — Drums/Pails
  • 2 — Barrels
  • 3 — Jerricans
  • 4 — Box
  • 5 — Bag
  • 6 — Composite packaging

Materials of Construction

  • A — Steel
  • B — Aluminum
  • C — Natural wood
  • D — Plywood
  • F — Reconstituted wood
  • G — Fiberboard
  • H — Plastic material
  • L — Textile
  • M — Paper, multi-wall
  • N — Metal (other than steel or aluminum)
  • P — Glass, porcelain or stoneware (not used in these regulations)

Packing Group: Packing group assignments determine the degree of danger of a dangerous goods item, so the following outlines how to determine if your dangerous goods can go inside of a UN specification package:

  • X — for packing groups I, II and III
  • Y — for packing groups II and III
  • Z — for packing group III

Maximum Gross Weight: For outer packagings intended for solids, this marking will indicate the maximum gross mass (weight) in kilograms at which the package has been tested for.

Year of Manufacture: This represents the last two digits of the year in which the package was manufactured.

Origin of Manufacture: This represents the country where the package was constructed.

Manufacturer Code: The last part of the UN specification marking sequence represents the code for the manufacturing plant or testing facility for the package

8. What is the difference between every day packaging and packaging for dangerous goods?

Dangerous goods packaging differ considerably to every day packaging, such as household boxes used to store and transport. For example, there are specific measures that must be taken to ensure that, should a package containing dangerous goods fall from a shelf or wagon, that the substance or materials inside remain safe. There must be precautions taken to limit the likelihood of harm.